There are a great deal of programming languages that exist, hundreds of them, each with a specific role. A common question for people just learning about programming is why are there so many languages? Many of the languages are based on each other, but were modified for a different task. Take Java for example. It takes much of it’s syntax (essentially the grammar of computer code) was derived from C and C++. Java’s object model is simpler than it is in C and it was designed to be a programming language that could be run on any computer, no matter the type. The language PHP was designed to be a programming language that is run on a web server, and creates HTML code for browsers to read. For every major language like PHP, Java, and C, there are dozens of small languages that are rarely used and were created by one or two people to fill a specific purpose.
Programming Languages – A history of programming languages from machine language to modern day
List of Free Programming Languages – A list of free languages and programming tools. Some languages you need to pay to get a license, not these!
Programming Basics – Some basic aspects of programming including variables, boolean control structures, data types and more.
Compiled vs Interpreted – Explains the differences. Part of a larger programming guide.
Interpreted vs Compiled debate – Explains some of the debate between the two. Focuses on Actionscript, the language behind Flash
Interactive Guide to Variables – A web program helps to teach you variables
Variable Types – Variable types can be different from language to language, but this is generally what they may be. This example is C++a
Programming with Expressions – This guide to expressions was designed for the C language, but many languages are similar
Regular Expressions – A guide to regular expressions, a powerful but sometimes difficult to use tool
Programming Statements – A PDF from Oklahoma State University
Functional vs. Procedural Programming Language – An explanation of the differences between procedural and functional programming
What is Procedural Programming? – An easy guide about procedural programming
Object oriented programming
History of Fortran – A brief history of Fortran
Fortran History and Development – A PDF about the history of Fortran, one of the first high level languages developed
History of Fortran – A resource by the Software Preservation Group that is trying to preserve old Fortran code
BASIC Timeline – A timeline of the history of the BASIC family of languages
History of C++ – A brief history of C++, created back in the early 80′s
The Python Programming Language – The history of the Python language as well a brief overview of the language
The History of Java Technology – A history of Java from the Java official website
A history of Perl – A history of Perl from the Perl website, includes a timeline
The History of PHP – The history of PHP from PHP.net
the History of C# – A brief history of C#. Also has some links to some cool pages so take a look at those too.
C# Tutorial – A long guide to C Sharp from the C Sharp Station
PHP Tutorial – A PHP tutorial from W3Schools, one of the best sites around when it comes to SQL, PHP and HTML help
12 Ruby on Rails Tutorials – A listing of some great Ruby on Rails tutorials
SQL Tutorial – An SQL tutorial containing all of the basic queries as well as help connecting it with PHP